Reviews on boldine report low toxicity in animal studies, which does not imply safety for use in humans. 34 , 38 In certain animals/cell lines, mitotic recombinant events such as crossover and gene conversion were induced by boldine, as were weak mutations in yeast cells. 48 However, boldine tested in vitro for clastogenic effect in human lymphocytes, and administration of up to 900 mg/kg given to mice, did not cause any significant increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations in another report. 49 Hydro-alcoholic extract of boldo and boldine demonstrated abortive and teratogenic actions in a later study. This report also found changes in blood levels of bilirubin, glucose, cholesterol, ALT, AST, and urea in rats. 50 Serious health hazards exist with internal use in humans. Many boldo products contain ascaridole; patients with kidney disorders, liver disease, gallstones, and other medical illnesses should not use this herbal.
Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt of adolescence and for the eventual termination of linear growth, which is brought about by fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate linear growth rates but may cause a disproportionate advancement in bone maturation. Use over long periods may result in fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and termination of growth process. Androgens have been reported to stimulate the production of red blood cells by enhancing the production of erythropoeitic stimulating factor. During exogenous administration of androgens,Â endogenous testosterone Â release is inhibited through feedback inhibition of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH).