Propionate is a major microbial fermentation metabolite in the human gut with putative health effects that extend beyond the gut epithelium. Propionate is thought to lower lipogenesis, serum cholesterol levels, and carcinogenesis in other tissues. Steering microbial propionate production through diet could therefore be a potent strategy to increase health effects from microbial carbohydrate fermentation. The present review first discusses the two main propionate-production pathways and provides an extended gene-based list of microorganisms with the potential to produce propionate. Second, it evaluates the promising potential of arabinoxylan, polydextrose, and L-rhamnose to act as substrates to increase microbial propionate. Third, given the complexity of the gut microbiota, propionate production is approached from a microbial-ecological perspective that includes interaction processes such as cross-feeding mechanisms. Finally, it introduces the development of functional gene-based analytical tools to detect and characterize propionate-producing microorganisms in a complex community. The information in this review may be helpful for designing functional food strategies that aim to promote propionate-associated health benefits.
There are no available data on the presence of fluticasone propionate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. However, fluticasone propionate concentrations in plasma after inhaled therapeutic doses are low and therefore concentrations in human breast milk are likely to be correspondingly low [see Clinical Pharmacology ()] . The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for FLOVENT DISKUS and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from FLOVENT DISKUS or from the underlying maternal condition.
Teratogenicity studies in mice using the subcutaneous route resulted in fetotoxicity at the highest dose tested (1 mg/kg) and teratogenicity at all dose levels tested down to mg/kg. These doses are approximately and times, respectively, the human topical dose of clobetasol propionate cream and ointment. Abnormalities seen included cleft palate and skeletal abnormalities. In rabbits, clobetasol propionate was teratogenic at doses of 3 and 10 mcg/kg. These doses are approximately and times, respectively, the human topical dose of clobetasol propionate cream and ointment. Abnormalities seen included cleft palate, cranioschisis, and other skeletal abnormalities.